Cancer Detection and Prevention Volume 21 / Issue 5 (Sep-Oct 1997)

Table of Contents and Editor's Notes

The peer review process occasionally results in approval of controversial publications that do not necessarily reflect the viewpoint of the editors. Readers of the journal are encouraged to critically review and comment on presented data by submitting a "Letter to the Editor" that may be reprinted in a subsequent issue.

Dna Adducts and the Mechanism of Carcinogenesis and Cytotoxicity of Methylating Agents of Environmental and Clinical Significance

Soterios A Kyrtopoulos, Lucy M Anderson, Saranjit K Chhabra, Vassilis L SouliotiS, Vassiliki Pletsa, Christos Valavanis, Panagiotis Georgiadis

This comprehensive review is devoted to the usefulness of DNA adduct assessment of individual exposure to environmental methylating genotoxins. Measurement of O6 methylguanine has been employed as a marker of environmental methylating agents in human carcinogenesis. >>>

Human Cancer and DNA Repair-Deficient Diseases

Alain Sarasin, PhD, Anne Stary, PhD

In patients with xeroderma pigmentosum syndrome (XP) the persistence of unrepaired DNA damage from exposure to ultraviolet light is in correlation with an extremely high level of skin tumors in sun-exposed sites. This marked incidence of skin tumors XP syndrom is associated with the defect in nucliotide excision repair of DNA damage. >>>

Lack of Correlation Between Codon 12 K- Ras Mutations and Major Histocompatibility Complex Antigens in Bronchogenic Carcinomas

Maximino Redondo, MD, Fernando Rodriguez, MD, Maria Luisa Hortas, MD, Angel Concha, MD, Miguel Morell, MD, Fededco Garrido, MD, and Francisco Ruiz-Cabello, MD

In 18 of 52 surgically resected bronchogenic carcinomas human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I was not detected and HLA class II was not identified in 44 of 52 cases. A statistical relationship was found between k-ras mutations and poorly differentiated carcinomas. k-ras activity was not associated with expression of major histocompatibility complex molecules in the resected specimens. >>>

Immunohistochemical Detection of p53 Protein and Prognosis of Surgically Resected Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

Xavier Quantin, Jean-Louis Pujol, Michel Lehmann, Joelle Simony, Isabelle Serre, and Francois-Bernard Michel

In 89 surgically treated patients with nonsmall-cell lung carcinoma, p53 mutations were not related to patient survival. However, the frequency of p53 abnormality in lung cancer and its early appearence in precancerous lesions suggests a prognostic role of this tumor suppressor gene abberation. >>>

Diet and Breast Cancer: Review of the Epidemiologic Literature

Francoise Clavel-Chapelon, PhD, Maryvonne Niravong, and Rosaline R Joseph, MD

A review of published results suggests that diet may play a role in the etiology of breast cancer. However, data on the relationship between diet and breast cancer does not permit conclusions about the association of a possible increased risk with higher intake of fat, protein or total calories. No conclusive evidence was found on the protective effect of high fiber, vegetables, fruit or vitamin intake. >>>

Heat Shock Proteins and Cell Proliferation in Human Breast Cancer Biopsy Samples

Laura M Vargas-Roig, MD, Mariel A Fanelli, MB, Luis A Lopez, PhD, Francisco E Gago, MD, Olga Tello, MD, Juan C Aznar, MD, and Daniel R Ciocca, MD, PhD

In surgical specimens from 40 patients with breast cancer, statistical analysis revealed a significant inverse correlation between heat shock protein (hsp) 27 and tumor cell proliferation determined by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunostaning, and by silver staining of nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs). Conversely, a statistically significant positive correlation between hsp 70 expression and increased cell proliferation was evident by PCNA and AgNORs staining. In 22 percent of the breast cancer specimens hsp 70 was clearly associated with the mitotic spindle. >>>

Protease Levels in Breast, Ovary, and Other Gynecological Tumor Tissues: Prognostic Importance in Breast Cancer

Clarissa Ruppert, MD, Silke Ehrenforth, MD, Inge Scharrer, Prof, and Ernst Halberstadt, Prof

In frozen breast tissue sections, urokinase plasminogen activator (UPA) levels were higher in primary recurrent and metastatic cancer than in nonmalignant breast tissues. Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) levels were increased in primary breast cancer, recurrent cancer and in cancer metastasis, demonstrating an important prognostic factor in node-positive and node-negative breast cancer patients. The significantly higher cathespin D levels in ovarian cancer and metastatic breast cancer tissues is interpreted as a sign of prognostic relevance for breast cancer metastasis. >>>

Use of Mammography as a Breast Cancer Screening Tool in Six Districts in France

A Lacour, PhD, N Mamelle, PhD, S Lafont, MS, B Bazin, MS, M Dubuc, MD, C Exbrayat, MD, A Trugeon, MD, and P Grosclaude, MD

In a survey of 1500 women above the age of 20 yr in 5 mammographic screening districts and one without a screening program, the rate of compliance ranged from 69.7 to 82.4 percent. The percentage of women who had only one mammography was lower than for women who had more than one mammography. In women above the age of 50 yr, diagnostic mammography was used less than self-referred mammography and the percentage range for both was lower than for mammography within the organized screening program. >>>

Thymidine Labeling Index in Colorectal Carcinoma: Relation to Clinicopathological Parameters and to Mitotic Index

Luigi Matturri, MD, Bruna Biondo, ScB, and Anna Maria Lavezzi, MD

In 74 primary colorectal cancers the thymidine-labeling index was not significantly related to histologic grading or stage of tumors. The mitotic index correlated significantly with histologic grading of differentiation and was higher in moderately and poorly differentiated, than in well-differentiated tumors. >>>

Preventive Effects of Polysaccharides Extracted From Human Tubercie Bacilli (Supecific Substance of Maruyama) on Colonic Carcinogenesis in Rats

K Iida, VMD, K Fujita, MD, H Hirai, MD H Goto, MD, S Miyazaki, Y Arai, MD, H Iwaki, MD, M Otake, MD, S Sassa, M Maemura, MD, T Nakayama, MD, H Kudo, MD, and S Sakamoto, MD

In rat colorectal adenocarcinomas induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazin (DMA) subcutaneous injection of a polysaccharide, extracted from human tubercule bacilli (SSM), increased the number of survivors from 60 percent without SSM treatment to 90 percent. The number of colorectal tumors markedly decreased compared to DMH controls. Authors suggest that SSM reduced colorectal DMH-induced carcinogenesis by inhibition of DNA synthesis. >>>


Herbert E. Nieburgs, MD
Worcester, MA